Warside saddexbiloodle ah oo ay soo saarto Jaamacadda Ummadda Soomaaliyeed
S.B. 15 Muqdishow Tel. 22742
Waxaad tirsigan ka akhrisan kartaa:
– Himilada Kulliyadda Diraasaadka Islaamka
– Naxwaha Af-Soomaaliga
– Diinta Waa Baahi Bulsho
– Ka-Faa’ideysiga Kulaylka Dhulka
– Curriculum Changes at Lafoole
MAXAMUUD ISMAACIIL CABDIRAXMAAN – GUDDOOMIYE
Maxamed X. Xuseen Raabi – XUBIN
Maxamed Cabdi Caruush
Cabdalla C. Mansuur
Muxsin Naaji Sacad
Jaamacadda iyo Xallinta Dhibaatooyinka Ummadda
Naxwaha Af-Soomaaiiga: Dood Gaaban
Oromada iyo Soomaalida
Diinta Waa Baahi Bulsho
Kaalinta JUS Xagga Baahinta Afka iyo Hiddaha Carbeed
Ka-Faa’iideysiga Kulaylka Dhulka
Dhibaatooyinka ay Leeyihiin Xulashada Mashaariicda Horumarinta: KTHB
Dhaqdhaqaaqa Ciyaaraha Jaamacadda
Magacaabid Hormuudyo Cusub
Madaxwaynaha oo ka gaybgalay xaflad lagu maamuusayo maalinta macallinka Soomaaliyeed
Madaxweynaha JDS oo furay bandhigii Hiddaha iyo Dhaqanka Soomaaliyeed
Madaxweynaha JDS oo furay shirkii guddiga iskaashiga JUS iyo Talyaaniga
Wareysi “AQOONYAHAN’* la yeeshay Wasiirka H. & T. S.
Xoojinta iskaashiga jaamacadda Qadar iyo JUS
Curriculum Change at Lafoole
Concept of Muslim Ummah and History
Farewell Oh Beautiful Somalia
Maxamuud Ismaaciil Cabdiraxmaan (Kulliyadda Saxaafadda)
“AQOONYAHAN” waxa uu ka dhashay dareen baahi loo qabey, Madaxweynaha Jamhuuriyadda Dimoqraadiga Soomaaliyeed Jaalle Maxamed Siyaad Barre isaga oo cabbiraya dareenkaas waxa uu ugu baaqay aqoonyahannada Soomaaliyeed in ay soo saaraan wargeysyo bandhig u noqon kara fikradahooda iyo cilmi baaristooda la xiriira xallinta dhibaatooyinka Ummadda, xag dhaqaale, bulsho iyo siyaasadba.
Dood-cilmiyeedkii JUS ay ku qabatay Huteelka Jubba dabayaaqaddii sannadkii 1982kii, waxa ka soo baxay go’aan ah in ay soo saarto JUS Wargeys xoojiya kala warqabidda iyo iskaashiga Kulliyadaha kala duwan ee Jaamacadda Ummadda Soomaaliyeed, isla markaasna xiriiriya JUS iyo Jaamacadaha dalalka kale.
Xiriirka noocaas ah waxa ka imaan kara faa’iido iyo horumar dan u ah, una adeegaya qaddiyadaha ka dhexeeya bani’aadamka, waayo guulaha cilmiga laga gaaro waqti kasta waa kuwo waxtarkoodu saameeyo nolosha bani’aadamka farqi la’aan.
Haddaba, dhalashada “AQOONYAHAN” oo caddadkiisii kowaad yahay midka aad akhriyeyso, waxa asaas u ah dareenkaas, baahidaas, baaqaas iyo go’aankaas Ummadda, Madaxweynaha iyo Aqoonyahannada oo Wasaaradda Hiddaha iyo Tacliinta Sare iyo JUS u tarjumeen ficil.
Sidii “AQOONYAHAN” ku gaari lahaa himilada loo asaasay, waa arrin ku xiran indheer garatada Soomaaliyeed hadba xilka ay iska saaraan.
JAAMACADDA IYO XALLINTA DHIBAATOOYINKA UMMADDA
Maxamuud Ismaaciil Cabdiraxmaan (Kulliyadda Saxaafadda)
Waxbarashada Jaamacadeed waa marxalad Takhasus cilmi oo noocyo iyo heerar kala duwan leh.
Waxayna leedahay muhiimad ama ujeedo ah daryeelka dhallinyarada mowhibada leh (talent), kobcinta awoodooda iyo daboolidda bulsho weynta waqtiga xaadirka ah iyo mustaqbalka, taas oo ka imaaneysa barbaarinta fikradeed iyo tababaridda Cilmiyeed hawlwadeenno hirgelin kara qorshaha qaranka iyo hoggaanka siyaasadeed ee Ummadda.
Jaamacaddu waa xarun cilmi baarista u jahaysa xalinta mashaakilka bulshada, kana qayb qaadata amaba hogaamisa horumarkeeda.
Haddaba Jaamacadi si ay u gudato waajibaadkaas, waa in ay mar kasta sameyso isbeddel horumar leh xagga manhajka waxbarashada, Cilmibaarista iyo hirgelinta natiijooyinka ka soo baxa, isla markaas waa in ay la socoto horumarka guud ee cilmiga iyo aqoonta bani’aadamka.
Jaamacadda Ummadda Soomaaliyeed, waxay soo martay marxalado dhowr ah, waxayna mar walba ku mintideysey fulin qorshe u suura geliya in ay kaalinteeda ka qaadato xagga Waxbarashada Akadeemikada ah iyo horumarinta guud ee bulshada.
Marxaladdii asaaskeeda JUS, waxay ka gudubtay dhibaato adag oo ahayd tanaaqud ka dhaxeeyay xagga himilada iyo maslaxadda wadaniga ah ee Ummadda ee dhismo Jaamacad Wadani ah iyo xagga awooda dhabta ah ee Qaranka oo dhaqaale yari iyo aqoon yari haysatay.
Dhibaatooyinkaas, waxaan kaga gudubney shucuur wadanimo, isku kalsooni iyo dhiiranaan ka tarjumeysay baahida Ummadeed iyo siyaasadda kacaankaba.
Waxayna ku dhammaatay guul JUS ka yeeshay inay noqoto ilays aqooneed.
Marxaladdii labaad, waxay ahayd xoojinta iyo horumarinta JUS, marxaladaas gudaheeda JUS, waxay abuurtay kaadir Jaamici ah oo hanta qaybta weyn ee duruus bixinta iyo cilmi baarista
Kulliyadaha JUS. Guulaha Jaamacadda Ummadda Soomaaliyeed ay gaadhay labadaas marxaladood, waxaa ka dambeysay Siyaasadda Kacaanka oo awood dhaqaale qalab iyo tashiilad nooc walba leh u fududeysay Jaamacadda Ummadda Soomaaliyeed.
Marxaladda saddexaad, waa mid hadda socota ee JUS sameyneyso horumar ballaaran xagga Kulliyadaha qaarkood oo u gudbey heer Takhasus Sare, sida Kulliyadda Caafimaadka, Dhismo Kulliyado cusub oo kala ah Saxaafada, Afafka iyo Diraasaadka Islaamka oo ahmiyad gaar ah u leh xagga xoreynta maskaxda iyo fikradda iyo xoojinta hiddaheenna Islaamka.
Jaamacadda Ummadda Soomaaliyeed waxay sameysay Cilmi baaris kaalin horseednimo ka qaadatay kobcinta aqoonta iyadoo u jaheysay xalinta dhibaatooyinka bulshada iyo horumarkeeda. 1982-1983, JUS waxay qabatay laba dood Cilmiyeed oo kala ah degaameynta aqoonta iyo Qabiilka iyo Qaranka.
Doodahaas waxay lahaayeen ahmiyad heer qaran ah. Waxaana ka qayb galay Madaxweynaha JDS Jaalle Maxamed Siyaad Barre oo furitaankoodii ka jeediyay Khudbad muhiim ah, aqoon yahanno Takhasus walba leh, Madaxda Dawladda iyo dadweynahaba, go’aanadii ay soo saareen, waxay ahaayeen kuwo xal Cilmi ah u horseeday dhibaatooyinka Ummadda.
Sidaas awgeed, waxaan rajeynaynaa in hey’adaha Dawladda iyo indheer garatadu go’aannadaas Cilmiga ku saleysan hirgeliyaan una beddelaan wasiilo dhab ah ee lagu daweeyo cudurrada bulshada sida: Qabiilka, lagagana adkaado dib u dhaca dhaqaalaha.
DHUGTA FALSAFADDA KACAANKEENNA SIDA U QEEXDAY
Prof. Maxamuud Nuur Caalim
(Kulliyadda Waxbarashada Lafoole)
Aqoonta Tayeysani waxa ay tahay aqoon ay weheliso sugitaanka qiyamka dhexdhexaadnimo ee faca weyn, isla markaasna loo kasi karo in ay bilawgeedii la kowsatay aadamiga. Halkaas oo kasmadeeda si xeel dheer looga tibaaxi karo:- In ay aqoontaas tayeysani tahay aqoontii soo jiraaga ahayd. Waxa kale oo hubaal ah in dhugta aqoontaas Tayeysan si cad looga dheehan karo: siyaalaha ay ugu suurtageli jirtay Ummadihii inooga horreeyay xalinta dhibaatooyinka faca weyn ee ay ka mid yihiin:
– Xasiloon la’aanta Nabadgelyada dunida iyo
– Dhibaatada cunnoyarida dunida.
Waxa halkaas laga filan karaa in Aqoonta Tayeysan laga kasban karo waayo-aragnimo oo si habsan u hogaamin karta adeegsiga aqoonta tiknoloojiyadda casriga ah. Xeeshaas Tayeynta awgeed ayaa kacaameyn karta adeegsiga aqoonta Tiknoloojiyada Casriga ah, si ay uga badbaadiso aadamiga dhibaatooyinkaas faca weyn ee halista ku ah dunida.
Waxa hubaal ah, in aadamigu u baahan yahay in la garwaaqsi iyo sugidda qiyamka dhexdhexaadnimo oo aan bilow ahayn; sida gadaal ku xusan, lana sarmo seegin dheelitirka aadamiga (Human Equation) oo loo kasi karo in dhammaan dadyawga dunida ay siman yihiin; isla markaas na qiyamkaas dhexdhexaadnimo in lagu hirgelin jiray dhaqan aqooneed oo kasta. Halkaas oo laga arki karo sababta ay ugu caal la’dahay adeegsiga aqoonta tiknoloojiyadda casriga ihi, maareynta dhibaatooyinkaas faca weyn ee kor ku xu’saniin ay tahay iyada oo fac yar.
Maareynta dhibaatooyinka halista ah waxa la hanan karaa marka ay aqoonta tayeysani habsami u hogaamiso hadba heerka ugu sareeya ee ay adeegsiga aqoonta tiknoloojiyadda higsanayso.
Tusaale ahaan:- Waxa la ogsoon yahay in qof kurey ihi uu u adeegi karo u ciidamidda qoyskooda hadba inta awoodiis tahay hase yeesho ee aan kureygaas laga filayn in uu hab “Waayeel” ugu maaro helo u caal helidda dhibaatooyinka ka fac weyn ee qoyska soo food saari kara.
Waxa tusaalahan kor ku xusan laga arki karaa in haatan aqoonta guud ee caadiga ah ee tacliin sare oo lagaga baaran degayo Jaamicadaha iyo Xarumaha Cilmiga ay tahay aqoon iskeed u fac yar; isla markaasna laga kasi karo in ay hogaamineyso adeegsiga aqoonta tiknoloojiyadda casriga ah. Halkaas oo laga garan karo jaho wareerka aqoonta haysataa haatan in uu yahay tartanka hubka halista ah ee hab sedbursiimo ahaan ka dhex oogan quwadaha waaweyn. Taas oo laga garan karo in Tacliinta Sare ee haatan dunidu isbideyso in ay higsaneyso heer sare tahay mid marin habawday, haddii aanay ka badbaadin aadamiga CABSI IYO GAAJO. Waxa halkaas laga arki karaa in indheergaradnimada horumar ee haatan la higsanayaa hadba kasii fogaanayso dhugta iyo kasmada indhawgaradnimo amase sugitaanka aqoonta Tayeysan. Halkaas oo laga arki karo in hogaaminta kuraynimo ee adeegsiga aqoonta tiknoloojiyadda Casriga ihi ka sarmo seegtay sugitaanka dheelitirka aadamiga; lagana filayn in ay hab waayeelnimo ugu caal hesho maareynta dhibaatooyinka ka fac weyn ee halista ku ah dunida, ay kana mid yihiin: CUNNOYARIDA IYO XASILOONI LA’AANTA DUNIDA.
Sugidda indhawgaradnimo waxa ay tahay tixgelinta la siin karo dhaqan-aqooneed oo kasta oo si loo siman yahay laga dheehan karo sugitaanka waayeelnimo ee qiyamka dhexdhexaadnimo, lagana dheehan karo aqoonta tayeysan; sida ay mudnaanshaha u siisay aadamiga in uu adeegsado hadba inta uu ka hanto adeegsiga aqoonta tiknoloojiyadda casriga ah. Halkaas oo si cad looga arki karo in dadyawga haatan ku dhaqan dunida la garwaaqsiiyo, iyaga oo si cilmiyeysan loo tusayo in TAYEYNTAASU tahay MAAREYNTA lagaga badbaadinayo dunida dhibaatooyinka halista ah ee soo food saara, ee ku saleysan adeegsiga tiknoloojiyadda casriga ihi in ay habsami ugu ciidanto.
Halkaas oo dib u hanashada dhugta iyo kasmada aqoonta tayeysan ee laga soo dheegay aqoontii soo jiraaga ahayd ee aragtiyada waayo-aragnimo ku dheehan yihiin; isla markaasna hab sugan looga tibaaxi karo maareynta sugitaankaas qiyamka dhexdhexaadnimo ee loogu tala galay in ay xeeshaas tayo hogaamiso saleynta aragtida laamaha iyo tabeynta adeegsiga tiknoloojiyadda, si aadamigu uga faa’iideysto, isla markaas na maamulku maareyn u yeesho. Halkaas oo laga arki karo, sida Eebaheen qiyamkaas dhexdhexaadnimo hab dhammeystiran ugu soo gunaanaday Diinta Islaamka.
Waxa nasiib darro ah in weli aqoontaas tayeysan loo arkin in hab waayeelnimo u hogaamin karto tacliimaha sare ee Cilmiga taas oo ay sababtu tahay: Sedbursiimo awgeed aadamiga loo
arkay in uu yahay mid u heelan dagaal iyo dirir; isla markaasna hab gefsan adeegsiga aqoonta tiknoloojiyadda casriga ihi ku khasbeyso in aadamigu noqdo nafley weerar iyo dagaal u taagan.
Waxa halkaas laga arki karaa in aqoonta tacliinta lagaga baaraan degayo xarumaha ay hogaaminayso, sida loo arkayo adeegsiga aqoonta tiknoloojiyadda casriga ah, una leexatay sedbursiimo iyo aadamiga oo ka marin habaaba hababkii laga filayay in maareyn horumar uu gaaro. Halkaas oo laga arki karo in aqoonta tayeysan ee ku hogaamin kartaa ay tahay; sugitaanka dhugta iyo kasmada Quraanka oo ka xoogweyn saleynta tayeynta aragtida laamaha Cilmiga isla markaasna laga arki karo, sida dheelitirka aadamigu u udub dhexaad ugu yahay in dhammaan culuunta iyo cilmiga diiniga ahba loo siman yahay oo si ay sinaan iyo cadaaladi ku dheehan tahay loogu hirgelin karo dhaqan aqooneed oo kasta. Waxa halkaas si cad looga garan karaa in maareynta sugitaanka qiyamka aadaminimo uu si fac weyn u yahay, DHAQANWADAAG; isla markaasna tixgelin aragtiyada waayo-aragnimo ee dhaqan aqooneed oo kasta hab indhawgaradnimo u adeegsan karo inta uu hanan karo farsamada tiknoloojiyadda, si uu ugu leexdo ka faa’iideysiga Cilmiga. Halkaas oo laga arki karo in tayeynta maareynta sugitaanka qiyamka dhexdhexaadnimo – aan la hanan kareyn, marba haddii la sarmo seego u caal helidda falsafadihii hore wax uga qaban kari jireen dhibaatooyinka faca weyn ee soo foodsaari jiray.
Waxa hubaal ah in haatan loo arki karo in aadamigu u adeegsanayo qalabka tiknoloojiyadda, isla markaasna kureynimadeeda laga filayn in ay ka badbaadiso dhibaatooyinka faca weyn ee soo food saaray. Waxa loo baahan yahay dadyawga dunida saddexaad in hab tayeysan iska xoreeyaan aragtiyada faca yar ee hab qaab adeegsi u garwaaqsiinayo in aan loollan weerar iyo dagaal lagu gaari karayn horumar. Waxa hubaal ah saleynta indhawgaradnimo ayaa xeel tayo, oo horumar ku dheehan yahay lagu hanan karaa.
Maxamed X. Xuseen Raabi
(Kulliyadda Waxbarashada Lafoole)
Maanta iyo intii Af-Soomaaliga aynu qorannay, waxa soo shaacbaxay weedho halhays noqday
oo ku saabsan Af-Soomaaliga Naxwihiisa. Weedhahaasi aad ayaa ay u faro badan yihiin. Dooddan koobani waxa ay ku saabsan tahay xal-uhelidda weedhahaas halhaysoobay ee lixda ugu joogtaysani yihiin:
1. Yaa Naxwaha Af-Soomaaliga u baahan?
2. Af-Soomaaliga Naxwihiisa cidi garan mayso;
3. Naxwe af-shisheeye ayaa lala doontay afkii;
4. Yaa isku raacay?
5. Af-Soomaaligu waa margi;
6. Af aan isaguba cilmiyaysnayn sidee baa cilmi loogu baran karayaa?
Haddii aynu rabno in aynu Soomaalida hadalkeeda ka dhaqno weedhahaas, waa in aynu u helno jawaabo ku habboon. Kolkaas, halkan waxa aan isku deyeyaa in aan weedh kasta jawaab ku filan ka bixiyo inta kasmadeydu awood u leedahay.
1. YAA NAXWAHA AF-SOOMAALIGA U BAAHAN?
Marka ugu horreysa su’aashani uma janjeedho ogaanshaha cidda Naxwaha Af-Soomaaliga u baahan; balse waxa ay u janjeedhaa in aan Naxwaha Af-Soomaaliga loo baahnayn marka loo fiirsado sida loo dhaho, waxase dhici karta in labada loola jeedo mararka qaarkood. Kolkaas waa in aan labadaba ka jawaabaa.
Haddii aan su’aashan ujeeddadeeda dambe ku horreeyo, waxa ay jawaabteedu tahay waa loo baahan yahay. Aad iyo aad ayaa baahi weyn maanta loogu qabaa. Qofkii in uu Af-Soomaaliga ku hadlo doona, kii in uu qoro jecel, kii in uu akhriyo ku dadaalo iyo kii in uu dhageysta uun raba intuba waa ay u baahan yihiin Naxwihiisa. Haddii aannu hadluhu afka Naxwihiisa sugin, waxa uu noqonayaa cudurside afka iimeeya.
Cudurrada uu qofka afkeena Naxwihiisa gefaa Af-Soomaaliga ku abuuraa waa ay badan yihiin, waxana ka mid ah:
LAHJADAHA Naxweed ee maanta af-Soomaaliga ku badan ee u qeybsama kuwo weedheyneed (syntactical) kuwo ereyeyneed (morphological) iyo kuwo codeyneed (phonological). Kuwa weedhayneed waxa ka mid ah:
1. Maxay waaye? Maxay weeye? Waa maxay?
2. Maxaas yiri? Maxay yiri? Muxuu yiri? iyo
3. Miyuusan iman? Miyuunan iman? Miyaanu iman?
Saddexdaas tusaale mid waliba waxa uu ka kooban yahay saddex weedhood oo kala lahjad ah; sida tusaale kasta lahjadda saxa ah loo ogaan karaa waxa ay ku xidhan tahay garashada cilmiyeed ee Naxwaha af-Soomaaliga.
Lahjadaha heerka ereyeyneed iyo heerka codeyneed ayaa kasii faro badan kuwa weedheyneed. Bal ereygee baa sugan naxwe ahaan ereyyadan – dhalxamag, dhalxanag, dhabxamag, dhabxanag, dhanxamag iyo dhanxanag? Codadkan suntan ee ereyyada: tuulooshin, tuuloodhin iyo tuulooyin kee baa codeynta sugan ee afkeennu ogoshahay? Kolkaas saddexdan tusaale iyo qaar kale oo badani, waxa ay jawaab sugan u yihiin su’aasha ujeeddadeeda dambe.
Ujeeddada su’aashu haddii ay u janjeedho ogaanshaha cidda u baahan naxwaha af-Soomaaliga, waxa aan dhihi karaa oo idinku aydin garawsan kartaan in ay u baahan tahay cid kasta oo barashada af-Soomaaliga rabta sokeeye iyo shisheeye.
Cudurrada lahjadaha dhaliya waxa ka mid ah: hadalka (oral speech) kama’a (slip of the tongue) fiiro la’aanta (fearlessness) dhego cuslaanta (hard-hearing) iwm.
2. AF-SOOMAALIGA NAXWIHIISA CIDI GARAN MAYSO
Weedhani waa mid hawl yari loo soo tuuray oo aan laga fiirsan ujeeddadeeda maxaa yeelay qofkii yidhi baa naxwaha af-Soomaaliga si fiican u garanaya iyada oo aan qof kale la doondoonin. Sababta oo ah weedhu waa weedh naxwe ahaan toosan.
Qof aan naxwaha af-Soomaaliga garanayni weedh af-Soomaali ah oo toosan ma dhihi karo. Waxase hubaal ah in ay jiraan laba heer oo garasho, marka Naxwe gaar ahaan laga hadlayo: heer daalacan (conscious level) iyo heer dedan (subconscous level). Soomaali kastaa waxa uu afkiisa u leeyahay garashada daalacan ka sokow, garasho dedan, oo isaga oo aan ogeyn ayaa uu sharciyada naxweed ee afkiisa isticmaalaa. Haddii uu qalad dhaco, oo aanuu qaladkaas ahayn mid lahjadoobay, markiiba waa uu kasaa in uu qaladan yahay; laakiinse ma sheegi karo qaladku sharciga naxweed ee uu jebiyey ama gefay. Waxa aan filayaa markaas in weedhan ujeeddadu tahay in aanay jiirin cid tilmaami karaysa nooca sharciyada Naxweed ee af-Soomaaliga. Marka dhinacaas laga fiirsho weedhan, waxa hubaal ah in Soomaalida badidood aanay tilmaami karin sharciyada naxweed ee afkeennu leeyahay. Waxase jira dad yar oo faro ku tiris ah, oo si fiican u tilmaami kara, oo u qeexi kara af-Soomaaliga xeerarkiisa naxweed ee saleed intooda badan.
Weedhan waxa aan ka dhihi karaa in ay Soomaalidu awood u leedahay in ay sixi karto qaladka naxweed ee ay gaystaan. Waxase aanay awood u lahayn in ay magacaabi karaan qaladka naxweed nooca uu yahay.
3. YAA ISKU RAACAY?
Su’aashani badi waxa ay soo fakataa marka qof Soomaali ihi arko sharci naxwaha af-Soomaaliga ku saabsan oo qof kale isku deyey in uu tilmaamo. Su’aashan murtideedu waa ta Soomaali badan hodday. Haddii xaqiiqda sugan ee jirta adduunka loo fiirsada, waxa qof waliba qiri karaa in waxyaabaha, cid kale iska daaye, inan iyo aabbihiis, inan iyo hooyadeed, odey iyo habartii ay isku raacaan kooban yihiin, Mararka qaarkood, iyaga oo jiritaanka shay wada qiraya ayaa ay isku diidaan habka uu u jiro, faa’iidadiisa, ama sansaankiisa.
Run ahaan afafka hore looga shaqeeyey naxwahooda weli la iskuma raacin walaw qaarkood qornaayeen dhawr qarni, culimada qeexidda naxwahooda isku dayeyna aad ayaa ay u badnaayeen, aqoontooduna aad ayaa ay u qoto dheerayd. Afkeenna oo 11 sano oo keli ah soo qornaa, culimo cilmiga afafka ku xeeldheerna ay bulshadiisu ka sabool tahay, aad ayaa ay u adag tahay isku raacidda naxwihiisu. Inta yar ee cilmiga afka u leh aqoon saleed waxa kala kaxeynaya meelaha ku badan afka ee aan heerka aqoontoodu gaadhsiisnayn.
Naxwaha af leeyahay jiritaankiisu waa aragti (theory) aragtiyina uma dhammaystirna farsamo (practice). Aragti kasta oo jirtaa ma sugto maaddada ay ku saabsan tahay idilkeed. Sidaas darteed ayaa aqoonyahan kastaa isugu dayaa in uu qeexo aragti ka fiican oo ka xoogroon tii ugu fiicnayd sugidda maaddadiisa. Middaasi waxa ay dhalisaa ama dhalisay in maaddo kasta oo cilmi ihi dhawr aragtiyood oo kala xoogroon ama casrisan ay leedahay. Naxwaha af-Ingiriisiga, tusaale ahaan, waxa loo adeegsaday dhawr aragtiyood oo cilmi oo mid walba ay ka dhasheen dhawr naxwe. Waxa markaas isweydiin leh sidee baa naxwe af, dhawr naxwe oo kala duwan u yeelan karaa? Jawaabtu waxa ay tahay marka uu qof shay eego, shey kasta in ayaa muuqata; ini na waa ay qarsoontaa. Shay dhammaantiis wada muuqdaa marka la fiirinayo ma jiro. Haddii aad doonayso in aad wada aragtid waa in aad kolba dhan ugu wareegtaa oo kolba dhan u rogtaa. Naxwaha af waa sidaas oo kale. Aragti kasta oo naxweed markaas meelo ayaa ay si fiican wax ugu tilmaantaa meelona waxba kama tusmayn karto. Naxwaha dugsiyada (school or pedagogical grammar) ee af-Ingiriisiga ama af-Talyaaniga ee duqsiyada lagu bartaa waa naxwe xubnihiisa fara badan loo adeegsaday xubin kasta aragtida cilmi ahaan ugu habboon lafa-gurideeda. Waxa markaas la la’yahay ilaa maanta aragti naxweed oo awood u leh in ay naxwaha af leeyahay dhammaantiis wada lafagurto. Sidaas daraadeed ayaa aanay suurtagal u ahayn ama ay u adag tahay in cilmi ahaan la isku raaco sharciyada naxwe ee af leeyahay, gaar ahaan af-Soomaaliga mudada yar qornaa.
4. NAXWE AF SHISHEEYE AYAA LALA DOONTAY AFKII
Murtida laga rabo in ay weedhani gudbiso, waa mid marka ujeeddada weedha la fiirsho aan xaqiiqda jirta ahaan karin. Weedhan waxa loola jeedaa, sida ay ila tahay, in af-Soomaaliga aan la cayn wereejin ee sida uu yahay naxwihiisa loo qeexo. Anigu waxba kama qabo middaas, maxaa yeelay sida qofka ku dhawaaqay weedhani jecel yahay ayaa aan aniguna jeclahay. Waxase aan hubaa haddii naxwe af kale lala doonto iyo haddii malamalayn (trial and error) Naxwihiisa lagu raadiyo in dulucdu isku naxwe isugu biyoshubanayso. Sababta oo ah lafagurid kasta waxa lagama maarmaan ku ah in ay ciriqyada iyo xubnaha dabiiciga ah ee af-Soomaaligu leeyahay ay raadiso. Af-Soomaaliga ciriqyadiisa iyo xubnihiisu waa wax gaar ah oo sugan oo iyada oo qalad dhaco mooyaan ee aanay suurtagal ahayn in la qaloocsho.
Xaqiiqadu sida ay tahay murtida weedhani waa ay wiiqan tahay. Marka hoos loogu fiirsado afafka adduunka oo dhammi; Naxwe ahaan xeerarka ay iskaga midka yihiin ayaa ka xoogroon sharciyada ay ku kala duwan yihiin. Culimada cilmi afafka dhammaantood waxa ay rumeysan yihiin in kala duwanaanta afafku ay tahay baarnimo ee aanay ahayn salnimo. Waxa af af ka dhigay ayaa ka jira af kasta. Kolkaas dhammaan afafku waxa ay ka siman yihiin jiritaanka xeerar tirsan oo naxweed oo wada sameeya. Waxase ay ku kala duwan yihiin sida af kastaa ugu dhaqmo heer kasta oo naxweed. Xeerarka af waliba leeyahay waxa kamid ah wadaraynta (plural formation).
Tusaale ahaan af-Ingiriisigu waxa uu lee yahay todoba dhambal-erey (allomorphs) saddex saameeya wadaraynta abyan (regular) iyo afar sameeya wadaraynta aan abyanayn (irregular). Wadaraynta abyan dhambal ereyyadooda waxa kala duwan sida codka ugu dambeeya magaca uu u soo baxo. Kuwo aan abyanayn kala duwanaantoodu waxba kuma xidhna ee waa xor. Af-Carbeedka wadareyntiisu waa ay ka duwan tahay tan af-Ingiriiska. Afar wadarood ayaa af-Carbeedka leeyahay oo aan ku xidhnayn sida codka ugu dambeeya magacu uu u soo baxo ama meesha uu kasoo baxo; Afartaas oo kala ah: (1) wadar mataamaysan (dual plural), (2) wadar lab (musculine plural), (3) wadar dheddig (feminine plural), (4) wadar jajab (broken plural). Afartaas wadarood saddexda hore ayaa abyan (regular) waxana saameeya oo baddela dhihidooda hadba magacu yeele, layeele, ama meeleeye ku sidkane kii uu yahay. Af-Ingiriisiga sidani ma dhacdo.
Af-Soomaaliga dhaqanka xeerka wadareyntiisu waa uu ka duwan yahay kuwa labadan af. Isaga waxa isa saameeya xeerka caynka (gender) -lab iyo dhedig iyo labo iyo toban dhambal-erey (allomorphs) oo ku baaha afartaas cayn wadarood oo kala ah:
(1) keli lab oo isu beddesha wadar lab: Miiska – miisaska;
(2) keli lab oo isu beddesha wadar dheddig: Duqsiqa – dugsiyada;
(3) keli dhaddig oo isu beddesha wadar lab: Lafta – lafaha, iyo
(4) keli dheddig oo isu beddesha dheddig: bidixda – bidixyada.
Xeerka wadaraynta sharciyadiisa naxweed ee ay sddexdan af (Ingiriisi, Carabi iyo Soomaali) ku kala duwan yihiin, waa aan guud maray. Waxase aan filayaa in guud maridoodu ku filan tahay murti ka siibidda weedhan.
Sirad Yusuf Ismail
(Chief Librarian of SNU)
The Institution of Library is as old as civilization itself as we know it, older than paper, older than print. It extends back to the scrolls, papyrus and clay tablets that appeared near the dawn of writing, back to ancient Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilization.
The basic function of all libraries was to preserve material by collection. Now they have come to serve many other purposes as well. The material they stock often includes films, slides, phonograph records, and tapes, as well books and manuscripts. Thus, by housing readily available information and the dissemination of its convenient transmission to students and others and by providing a source of instructive and creative reading, viewing, and listening for the general public of all ages, libraries play a major role in modern social organization.
In earliest times there was no distinction between a record room (or archive) and a library, and in this sense libraries can be said to have existed for almost as long as records have been kept.
During 15th century, man first made possible the creation of a significant number of relatively large collections of books. But the modern role of the library did not begin until the latter part of the 19th century which saw significant awakening. Libraries had grown in size, but their growth had been haphazard; administration had become weak, standards of service almost non-existent, funds for acquisitions were inadequate.
By the end of the century new conceptions of the purpose and scope of learned libraries were everywhere lacking shape. The library then responded to three concurrent and related developments; the emergence of an urban industrial society that required a generally literate population; a serious commitment of the state to free, universal compulsory education; and the development of high-speed steam-powdered rotary presses and mechanical methods of producing paper from wood pulp, inventions that made it possible to produce books, magazines, and newspapers for everyone.
Print became a mass media, and the public library became the principal instrument for making books available to the people at large. All these means simply that the technology of the 19th century industrial revolution has given way to a system of production and the library, more than any other instrument of society, opened to public use the treasury embodied in books. Early in the 20th century it became possible to record sound and motion picture.
Later, radio and television made it possible to assemble audiences of tens of millions to witness living actuality. The great quantity of information now being made available has the potential to free man, to enable him to shape the world to his choosing, to conquer his ills and deprivations. All these developments place new kinds of demands on the library and open new opportunities to it.
The library assembles information from countless sources and places it at the command of the individual user.
TYPES OF LIBRARIES
National Libraries:- In most countries there is a national or state library or group of libraries maintained by National resources, usually bearing responsibility for publishing and maintaining a national bibliographical information centre.
National libraries strive principally to collect and to preserve the nation’s literature, though they try to be as international in the range of their collections as possible.
Like the national libraries, there are university libraries general in scope. Some of them can be compared with the greatest national libraries in their collections quality and range.
Public Libraries:- The public libraries as we know it today did not emerge until the mid 19th century, although it had roots in institutions. Public libraries play an indispensable role in the Life of the community. They promote the reading of literature among grown-ups, adolescents and children. They provide familiar information and reference centre, where the modern citizen can secure reliable advice or practical assistance and where he is helped to get his bearings in the complexities of modern community life.
In many cases, public libraries build up collections that relate to local interests, often providing information for local industry and commerce. Not all countries provide public library service of and equally high standard, but there has everywhere been a tendency to recognize their value and to improve services where they exist to introduce them where they do not.
Special Libraries:- The national, university, and public libraries mentioned above form the backbone of the general library system in a country, looking after the needs of scholars and general public. They are supplemented by libraries established to meet the highly specialized requirements of professional or business groups.
School Libraries:- In the countries in which public library legislation exist, public library services are often available to School Libraries. Technical procedures, such as book purchase and processing, are carried out by the local library
Conclusion:- The library is the chief instrument so far perfected for accumulation and using man’s intellectual heritage, the accumulated wisdom of centuries. By learning to depend on letters instead of depending merely on live memory and spoken word, man has vastly increased his effectiveness in preparing youth for adulthood.
Since the Library has been perfected as the principal vehicle for carrying forward and making available the intellectual resources that need to be accumulated for use, this statement means for one thing that formal education at all levels can be conducted more effectively with well-equipped Libraries.
CURRICULUM CHANGE AT LAFOLE
Said O. Faahiye – (College of Education, Lafole)
In this paper I will try to explain how a new college perspective was designed for the college of Education at Lafole, Somali National University. I will also discuss the results of the Seminar on curriculum development and the improvement of the teaching learning process conducted for the curriculum committee of the College of Education. Since the task of the professional Educator is the design of learning systems, depending upon the objectives, the interests and responsibilities of the designers a learning system may be as large as the biggest university or as small as the individual student. Good system design implies the careful specification of requirements and objectives.
Students are not infinitely adaptable and their capacities for learning are limited. It is widely said these days that there is an information explosion and that the student cannot learn all there is to know or even a substantial part of the knowledge in one field. With so much to be learned, the student must depend on greater selectivity in regard to what he learns and greater control over how the material to be learned is presented. The purpose underlying this is the notion of improvising the effectiveness of learning through careful systems design. What the College of Education did was to consider the difference in abilities, backgrounds, and the styles of learning to design the prospectus.
2.1. The College Prospectus
The bulletin prepared by the curriculum committee encompasses a description of all the courses offered by the College of Education. It contains a brief introduction on the functions and the objectives of the college, history of the college, admission requirements, academic standards and general Education requirements.
The College of Education is composed of four divisions: The division of Science and Mathematics, the division of Social Sciences, the division of Education, and the division of languages. The divisions organize the departments, with the departments offering major and minor programs in their respective discipline fields. The division of Science and Mathematics includes the departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Agricultural Science, and Mathematics. The division of Social Science includes the departments of History and Geography, the division of Education comprises the departments of Education, Physical Education, Health and Recreation and Instructional Technology. Students in the College of Education are expected to complete a required core of general Education courses, a major area of study and a minor program of study.
The prospectus; production caused much writing, research, and Scientific discussions on the part of the curriculum committee and went through three phases:
a) Preparation: For three months the department heads with ample assistance from other faculty members worked on revising the old prospectus. It became a dire necessity to extend the duration of the course work and to add more courses and their descriptions. During this period the curriculum committee met many times to resolve incongruencies between descriptions presented by different departments. In these meetings the curriculum discussed the following:
i- Curriculum change possibilities at lafole.
ii- General requirements.
iii- Uniform numbering for different courses, their appropriate titles and descriptions.
iv- Evaluations of different courses and their credits,
b) The Seminar
A Seminar on curriculum development and the different ways in which the teaching learning process could be improved at the College of Education was conducted for the curriculum committee members. The Seminar was conducted for one week (Nov. 26 to Dec 1,1983). The teaching in the seminar was done by Dr. Allan Brandhorst of the University of Southern Carolina. The mission of Dr. Brandhorst was to edit, advice, supervise and coordinate the writing and the production of the college prospectus; and at the same time conduct the Seminar.
Dr. Brandhorst lucidly presented the principles of curriculum development. During the course of the discussions it became apparent that to understand curriculum change it is necessary to understand the human mind. J. P. Guilfords model of the human mind; with contents, processes, and products, was an eye opener when explained by Dr. Brandhorst. Experiments carried by Piaget, Bloom, and other researchers was also examined.
To get the right vantage point we must define curriculum and curriculum change. Curriculum pertains to all the intended learning goals, experiences, teaching materials, and evaluation techniques in which educators plan or use. The three most obvious aspects to consider in curriculum change are:
(1) The subject matter or the curriculum change by task.
(2) Educational level involved.
(3) The teaching learning process.
When we talk about revising the subject matter we are in the realm of the Education program. While Curriculum revision by task happens when a plan is in order. As in our case we asked ourselves the following questions.
1. How can we revise the curriculum so that the students learn more about the Somali culture?
2. How can we change the curriculum so that it will be more useful in the daily community of Somali villages and towns?
3. How can our curriculum be changed so that the College will produce teachers who after teaching in our Secondary Schools will enable the pupils to best meet the needs of the modern world?
By the Educational level it is meant standard of the students who are encompassed by the intended curriculum change.
The other aspect of the curriculum which is to be considered at the advent of curriculum change is the teaching-learning process itself. To explain this three questions will suffice.
The first question is: “What are we going to teach?” The answer defines the objectives, the aims, the goals or the expected outcomes of the curriculum. The second question is: “How can it best be taught?” This defines both the teaching methodology (like lectures, discussions, group projects) and the material and the equipment necessary for applying the methodology (for example, books, laboratory equipment, and workshops). At the third stage we ask: “How well are the students reaching the goals?” This defines the realm of evaluation, assessment or appraisal. All these three steps were considered in the curriculum change at Lafole. New goals, methods, materials and procedures were suggested and evaluated. The participation of the student in the teaching-learning process was emphasized.
To understand the word change in connection with the title of this article it must be understood than two points in time are important here for assessing the change. The first point indicates the condition of the curriculum before the change was launched. (In the case of the college of Education the prospectus was highly compact and needed extension, elaboration, and modernization to be able to produce a contemporary teacher for the modern Secondary School) and the second point the condition of the curriculum after the entire change. The extent of the change is measured by the condition of the curriculum from the first to the second point in time. Another thing is that curriculum changes do not happen in a vacuum but happen in a social context. In our case the desire of the faculty members for change and the blessing of the University Authorities helped a lot.
In this phase of the process of the catalogue design each department was scheduled to work with Dr. Brandhorst for one day. The departments discussed their curriculum, basic objectives of individual courses, and the possibilities of extension of the curriculum.
To these working sessions we invited all the professors (Somali & expatriate) who were conversant with principles of curriculum design and the different disciplines taught at the College. Furthermore at the end of each week the divisions held a common session in which most of the incongruencies were ironed out, some of the conclusions at these meetings were:
1) That each department hold seminars for its faculty members to upgrade the teaching-learning process.
2) That each department write the syllabus of each course identifying the topical outline, objectives, requirements and the bibliographical assignments.
3) The College of Education with the help and approval of the Somali National University is to explore ways of cooperation with other colleges of Education in other countries.
4) That the College develop a system in which textbooks are written for different courses offered at the college. These books are to be viable with Somali culture, environment and resources.
5) That the college work closely with the curriculum development office, the examination board and the teacher training centres of the Ministry of Education to upgrade the Secondary School curriculum, the textbooks and our educational system as a whole.
6) That the “teaching practice” be made an integral part of the college curriculum.
7) That the college develop a system that will enable the college to acquire scientific journals and periodicals.
After evaluating the project it became apparent that the college can work on a project spanning a long time. In retrospect we are of the opinion that the College gained a much needed confidence and experience.
1. Bloom B. B., Taxonomy of Educational objectives:
1. Cognitive domain, New York: David Mckay, 1956.
2. THOMAS, etal: Strategies for curriculum change: case from 13 Nations: International textbook company, 1968.
3. Brandhorst, Allan:
1- Effective teaching in Science
2- Effective teaching in Geography
3- Effective teaching in History and other materials presented at the Seminar for curriculum development.
REVISED PATTERN OF THE NEW CURRICULUM OF THE FOUR YEAR GRADUATE PRE-SERVICE TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMME OF STUDIES AT THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, LAFOLE, SOMALI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
Common to all Students: core of General Education Requirements:-
I. Ten Professional course offerings in Education
i) Principles of Education
ii) Child Development
iii) Educational Psychology
iv) Teaching Methods and Techniques
v) Measurement and Evaluation
vi) Teaching Practice
vii) Philosophy of Education
viii) Curriculum Development
ix) Guidance and Counselling
x) Educational Administration and Supervision
II. English Language (Five Courses)
i) Intensive English I
ii) Intensive English II
iii) Freshman English
iv) Advanced Composition I
v) Advanced Composition II
III. Audiovisual Education (Three Courses)
IV. Physical Education (Three Courses)
V. Socialism (Three Courses)
VI. Science (One Physical and one Biological)
VII. Arabic (One Course)
VIII. Religion (One Course)
IX. Somali (One Course)
X. Mathematics (One Course)
During this period the College offered 6 to 7 courses in Education (i.e. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vii) (viii) mentioned under I (under the compulsory part in the above table).
3 to 5 courses in English,
3 to – courses in Audiovisual Education
3 to 6 courses in Socialism and
3 to – courses in Physical Education and courses in Major and Minor subjects.
The Revised Pattern of the New Curriculum of the Four-Year Graduate Teacher Pre-Service Teacher Training Programme comes into force with effect from 1985.
Combinations of Major and Minor Subjects offered;
Courses in one Major Subject and Minor Subject are to be studied by each student by selecting one of the following combinations:-
Major No. of Courses Minor No. of Courses
1. English 16 Somali 11
2. Arabic/Religion 22 History 8
3. History 18 Geography 9
4. Geography 17 History 8
5. Biology 17 Chemistry 7
6. Agricultural Education Biology 8
7. Chemistry 16 Physics 7
8. Chemistry 16 Mathematics 11
9. Chemistry 16 Biology 8
10. Mathematics 20 Physics 7
11. Mathematics 20 Physical Education 3
12. Physics 18 Mathematics 11
13. Physical Education 32 Health 9
14. Journalism 17 Arabic 10
15. Somali 21 English 1
NOTE: The College of Education (formerly National Teacher Education Center (NTEC)) offered four year graduate Pre-Service Teacher Training Programme from 1968 to 1974 to train Secondary School students to become qualified Secondary School Teachers. In order to meet the urgent need of trained secondary School teachers in Somalia, the College offered Intensive Two year Pre-Service Graduate Teacher Training Programme during the period from 1974 to 1984.
Concept of Muslim Ummah and History
Mohamed Ali (Pakistan)
(Faculty of Education, Lafole)
Who are we, and where do we stand now? What were the causes of our downfall, in politics, economics, socio-religious spheres?
Why our youth is ignorant of its past and, depressed and disappointed about the future? Now-a-days, such questions puzzle the peoples of Moslem lands.
But what can be suggested as a panaca for the ills of Moslim Ummah (Nation)? Before going into the depths of the answer to the question, first, we must consider, whether the peoples, who believe in One Book ‘The Holy Quran’, One God ‘Allah’, and the Prophet, MOHAMMAD (Salalla-huAlahai Wasalam), are to be called a ‘Moslem Ummah’ (Nation) and why? With the start of human-history, i.e. historical periods, Man is called and considered a member of the whole community, with its interests, ideals and modes of life, existing at certain times, irrespective of the distances. Revealed Books and other annals of human-past, also affirm the view that peoples living in the past were always united in the face of challenges; and defended and propagated what was near to the truth, if not exact truth. Clan-worship and tribalism along with mythological philosophies perished long time back. According to the teachings of the greatest historical religious book, the Holy Quran, Man was created out of clay, and the knowledge of the ultimate truth was given to him and he was made on the nature of Islam, but at the same time, he was endowed with a mind and heart; and was made free to meditate and think over the phenomena around him and his own person as well. Then what was the ‘DIN’ (way of life) of Noah, Abraham and of the prophets of Abraham’s lineage (SAW). The answer we find in the holy Quran, says, they were born on the nature of Islam and called Moslems.
In the world of darkness, the last of the prophets came as a saviour for the whole of Universe (RAHMATULIL-ALAMIN).
This was MOHAMMAD (SAW), the most dear and praised one, and a final guide to the whole humanity until the Day of Doom. With additions, he brought the faith and the DIN of his predecessors, Abraham, Moses and Jesus Christ. He was propagating and spreading the same Truth, Islam, the way of the righteous.
During the life-time of the prophet Mohammad (SAW), everything was explained by himself either by deeds or words. Moslem peoples were united and strengthened into one Ummah Nation condemning distinctions of color, race, languages etc. The State was organised and integrated according to the transcedental principles of Islam governing politics, society, economic life, religious obligations and other spheres of life. Reasoning and counselling was allowed to solve the emergent and diversified problems of Moslem peoples in the world at large. All those ideas and values worked properly during the first thirty or so years of the Moslem Nation. But in later periods with the expansion and coming of new peoples into the fold of Islam, little attention was paid to the propagation of Islam, and training of the new-converts in the teachings and injunctions of the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
It is an established fact that in the fall of great empires and peoples, the ‘Persons’ of palaces, princes and emperors, always played an important role. The person of emperor Nero was not the only responsible, in the fall of the Romans, but yet he contributed in that process of fall. The same is true of the Moslem Ummah; Men of intellect and responsibility misled the Moslem people. Selfishness, rivalry and greed of power made the Moslem Nation disunited and resultantly, there were crackings in the body-politic of the Moslem Nation; Thus it was divided into a lot of sects and groups. In the long period of discord and disagreement, many reformers, jurisprudents and traditionists came to the rescue of the Nation, but they were misunderstood. In our times, we often hear the names of Imam Hunbal, Imam Shafi, Imam Abu Hanifa and Iman Malik, and Imam Jafar (a decendent of our prophet), and a lot of others. These people of knowledge and reason, were simple Moslems and they just tried to be called true and devout Moslems, adhering the way of God the Sunnah of His Prophet. But soon after their deaths, peoples followed them, instead of the Sunnah of Prophet and the Holy Quran, and even regimented themselves into adamant school of thoughts, although it was not the purpose of these Imams. They laboured and bore hardships to lead the Moslem masses out of the mess and enlighten them with their scholarship.
Alas! We are far away from their expectations and are in the grip of darkness. Moslem Ummah is divided into small entities of color, race, language and of materialistic interests. Also, the non-Moslem powers are in a better position to jeopardise the Moslem Nation. In such circumstances, the only saviour is the Book of Allah, Al-Quran and the Sunnah of his Prophet!
“Today I have completed for you your religion; my bounty and grace have been conferred upon you conclusively; and I am pleased that your religion shall henceforth be ISLAM.”
FAREWELL OH BEAUTIFUL SOMALIA
ITEC EXPERT (INDIA)
I have come from India,
I stayed in Somalia,
Somalia is full of trees,
It presents a good scenery,
Here there is absolutely no confusion,
Cool breeze comes from Indian Ocean,
Days are generally warming,
And nights, are always charming
I adore you very much Somalia,
Farewell Oh! Beautiful Somalia.
Somali girls are always shy.
But they have beautiful eyes,
Somali men are by and large humanitarian
They are God-fearing and are full of fun,
You are so fascinating Oh! Somalia,
But I am shortly leaving for India.
Farewell Oh! Beautiful SOMALIA!
I came here as an Indian Expert,
I worked with you to my best,
Working on two years deputation,
Getting full and complete satisfaction!
Stayed in Somalia without my family
But sometimes I felt quite lonely!
But Somalis are very very friendly
They treated me very gently and honourably!
I admire you very much SOMALIA!
But could not forget my own INDIA!
Farewell Oh Beautiful SOMALIA!
Somalis are generally quite intelligent,
Somalis are cultural and National Conscious
Both are essential for National Development!
They do not maintain hierarchy status.
As they believe in complete equality,
And always live in complete fraternity!
Dipartimento Stampa e Pubblicazione
dell’UNIVERSITA’ N. SOMALA